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President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address:ケネディ大統領就任演説1

 


President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address


(January 20, 1961) The White House



Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, revered clergy, fellow citizens:


Vice President Johnson:リンドン・ジョンソン。ケネディ政権の副大統領。

Mr. Speaker:下院議長

Mr..Chief Justice:最高裁長官

President Eisenhower:アイゼンハワー大統領。ケネディの前任者。

Vice President Nixon:アイゼンハワー政権の副大統領。この前の年、ケネディと大統領選を戦った。ケネディの死後、大統領となる。

President Truman:トルーマン大統領。アイゼンハワーの前任者。

revered clergy:尊敬される聖職者。彼の就任式には以上の人々が出席していた。

fellow citizens::国民の皆さん

 

背景)1960年のアメリカ大統領選は、共和党政権で副大統領を務めていたニクソンと、民主党のケネディとの一騎打ちとなり、ケネディが勝利をおさめた。翌年一月、彼はホワイトハウスの主となり、前政権の要人らを前にして、このスピーチを行った。演説の趣旨は台頭しつつある共産主義に対し、アメリカ人の愛国心を鼓舞し、立ち上がらせるというものである。なおスピーチはyoutubeなどから視聴できる。

 

We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of Freedom--symbolizing an end as well as a beginning--signifying renewal as well as change. For I have sworn before you an

d Almighty God the same solemn oath our forbears prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago.


observe 祝う

signifying 意味する

solemn oath 厳粛な宣誓

forbears prescribed 先祖らが定めた

a century and three-quarters ago175年前。1776年の独立宣言のこと。


The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands [the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life]. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe--the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God.


mortal 死すべき運命の。

abolish 廃絶する

the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life戦後のアメリカの巨富と、核兵器のこと。

at issue 争点となっている

generosity 寛大さ

 

We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans--[born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage--and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights [to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world].]


heir 後継者

the first revolution 独立戦争はアメリカでは世界初の市民革命と考えられている。(フランス革命は1789年、独立宣言は1776年)

foe

temper (鉄を)鍛える

discipline (人間を)鍛える

human rights to which this nation has always been committed この国が常に委ねられてきた人権。

Americans--以後は、全てこの単語を修飾している。この世紀に生まれ・・証言したくないアメリカ人。


Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

 

bear any burden いかなる重荷をも背負う


This much we pledge--and more.


pledge 誓う


To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we Pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United there is little we cannot Do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can Do--for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.


the loyalty of faithful friends 忠実な友としての忠誠

a host of 多数の。このhostは「軍隊」の意。hostem (=enemy)→hostile, host.

cooperative ventures 共同事業

odds 不和

split asunder バラバラに分裂した

for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds 不和のままでは、我々は敢えて強力な挑戦に立ち向かおうとしないからだ。


To those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our Word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom--and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.


new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free 我々が自由な地位に歓迎する新しい国々→我々が自由陣営の一員として受け入れる新しく独立した国々。(当時は共産陣営との間で、アジアやアフリカでの新興独立国の勧誘争いが激化していた)

iron tyranny 鉄の専制。ironは共産陣営の比ゆ。

ended up inside (トラの)内側に終わった。トラを利用したものは、トラに食われた、ということ。


To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required--not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.


pledge~することを堅く誓う。

for whatever period is required どれだけ期間が必要であろうとも


To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge--to convert our good words into good deeds--in a new alliance for progress--to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to Remain the master of its own house.


sister republics south of our border ラテンアメリカ諸国のこと。アメリカの勢力圏。

cast off 解放する

prey 餌食

hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers 希望は敵勢力の餌食となってはならない。

aggression and subversion 侵略と政権転覆

this Hemisphere アメリカ大陸の存在する半球

Remain the master of its own house 自分の家の主人に留まる

当時アメリカはラテンアメリカ諸国を援助していたが、共産主義者がそれを悪用して政権転覆、騒乱などを起こしていた。ソ連は彼らを援助し、革命成就の後にはコミンテルンを通して間接支配していた、というのがケネディの主張。


[To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations], [our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace], we renew our pledge of support--[to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective]--[to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak]--and [to enlarge the area in which its writ may run].


sovereign states 主権国家

forum for invective 非難の議場

shield of the new and the weak 新しい国や弱い国の楯

writ may run 力が行使できる

主文:To the United Nations, our last best hope, we renew our pledge of support

to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective

to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak

to enlarge the area in which its writ may run.


Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before [the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science] engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.


nations who would make themselves our adversary 自分自身を我々の敵とする国々→我々の敵となる国々

unleashed (くびきから)解き放たれる

engulf 飲み込む


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Martin Luther King's Speech -- I Have A Dream:キング牧師1

 

Martin Luther King's Speech -- I Have A Dream

 

Lincoln Memorial in Washingto D.C. 

August 28, 1963



I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.


私は、我が国の歴史の中で、自由のため最も偉大なデモンストレーションとして歴史に残る集会に、今日、皆さんと共に参加できて幸福です。


Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

 

score = 20, dozen = 12, 60 = three scores = five dozens

symbolic shadow = 象徴的な影 = この演説はリンカーン記念堂の前で行われたということと、リンカーンの奴隷解放宣言の影響下にアメリカ人はいるという二重の意味がある。

 

今から100年前に、我々が今日その像の下に立っている偉大なるアメリカ人が、奴隷解放宣言に署名しました。

 

背景)このscriptは黒人運動の指導者であったマーチン・ルーサー・キング牧師の演説である。1960年代当時、アメリカでは公民権運動がピークを迎え、黒人と白人知識層を中心にしたデモを繰り返す差別撤廃派と、南部白人を中心にした差別温存派が激しく衝突していた。

 

その中にあって、キング牧師は首都ワシントンに集結した差別撤廃派の前にして、有名な「I have a dream」演説を行った。聖書の文言を踏まえて格調高く、黒人英語的リズムに基づいて熱情的に、差別撤廃という理念を語ったこの演説は、数ある英語スピーチの中でも、人気が高いものである。

 

This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice.


この重要な宣言は、それまで燃えさかる不正義の炎に焼き焦がされてきた何百万もの黒人奴隷たちにとって、希望を示す素晴らしい灯りでした。

momentous decree重要な宣言

beacon灯標。灯り。

Negro = African American。なお現在では差別的用語なので、使わないのが無難。

sear焼き焦がす。

wither燃え盛る。


It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

daybreak夜明け

captivity囚われ。奴隷制。


それは奴隷制度のもとでの長い夜の終わりを告げる喜びの夜明けでした。


But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free.


しかし、あれから100年たった今、黒人が、いまだに自由ではないのです。


One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.

cripple不自由にする

manacle and chain手かせ・足かせ。奴隷制の象徴。

segregation(人種)隔離


100年たった今、黒人たちの生活は、人種隔離の手かせと人種差別の足かせに縛られています。


One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity.

in the midst of の只中に。

poverty ⇔ prosperity:このように単語はペアで覚えると覚えやすい。


100年たった今、黒人たちは物質的繁栄の広大な海の中で、貧困という孤島に暮らしているのです。


One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land.

languish惨めに暮らす

exile追放者


100年たった今、黒人たちはいまだにアメリカ社会の片隅で苦しんでいて、自分たちの国の中で島流しにされているのです。


So we have come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

dramatizeドラマ化して)世間に知らしめる。


私たちが今日この場に集まったのは、この恥ずべき状態を広く世に訴えるため。


In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check.

 

cash a check小切手を現金に換える。ここでは小切手は独立宣言のこと。独立宣言に書かれた基本的人権の遵守を政府に迫ることが、「現金に換える」の意味。アメリカでは小切手が庶民に普及しており、説教が本職だけあって大変分かりやすい喩えである。


ある意味、私たちは、小切手を現金に換えるために、私たちの国の首都に来たのです。


When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence,


magnificent堂々たる。素晴らしい。

the Constitution憲法。

the Declaration of Independence独立宣言。

 

私たちの共和国の創設者が、憲法と独立宣言のすばらしい言葉を書いたとき、


they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir.


promissory note約束手形

fall heir to A= Aの相続人となる。

to 動詞=~すべき


彼らはあらゆるアメリカ人が享受すべき約束手形に署名したのです。


This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

guarantee保証する

unalienable譲ることができない

pursuit追求


この手形は「生命、自由および幸福追求」の「譲ることのできない権利」がすべての人(そうです白人と同様に黒人も)に保証されるだろうという約束でした。


It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned.

 

default on デフォルト。約束不履行。

insofar as~に関して

herアメリカを女性代名詞で受けている。自由の女神からの連想。


有色人種の市民に関する限り、アメリカがこの約束手形の履行をおこたっていることは、今日明白です。


Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."

honor褒め称える。守る。

sacred obligation神聖な義務


この神聖な義務を守る代わりに、アメリカは黒人たちに不渡り小切手(「残高不足」とマークされて戻った小切手)を与えているのです。


But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt.

bankrupt破産


しかし、私たちは、正義の銀行が破産していると思うことを拒否します。


We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.

insufficient funds資金不足

vault金庫


私たちは、この国の「機会」という金庫が残高不足になっていると信じることを拒否する。


And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

upon (=on) demand=要求に応じて。オンデマンド。

security保証


したがって、私たちはこの小切手(我々に自由という富と正義の保証を要求に応じて与えてくれる小切手)を現金にするために来たのです。


We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now.

hallowed 神聖な

remind of A=人にAを思い出させる


我々は、また、アメリカに今の激しい緊急性を思い出させるために、この神聖な場所に来ました。


This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.

this is no time to = this is not the time to~する時ではない

engage in従事する。

luxury贅沢

cooling off契約取り消し

tranquilizing drug鎮静剤

gradualism漸進主義


今は、クーリングオフをやったり、漸進主義という精神安定剤を飲むというような悠長な時ではないのです。


Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy.

make A real=Aを本当のものとする。Aが長いときは、語順が入れ替わってmake real Aとなる。


今こそ、民主主義の約束を実現するときです。


Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.

desolate荒れた。荒涼とした。

sunlit太陽の光に照らされた。


今こそ、隔離され暗く荒涼とした谷から人種平等の太陽に照らされている道に上ってゆく時です。


Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

quicksand流砂。quickには「流れる」の含意があり、quicksilverは「流れる銀」、即ち「水銀」の意。

solidしっかりした。


今こそ、私たちの国を、人種差別の泥沼から、兄弟愛の硬い岩へと持ち上げる時なのです。


Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.


今こそ、全ての神の子が実際に正義を手にするときです。


It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment.

overlook見逃す。


国家が現在の緊急性を見落とすのは致命的でしょう。


This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.

sweltering蒸し暑い

legimate正当な

summer will not pass until A= Aまで夏は過ぎない。Aして始めて夏は終わる。

invigorating活力を与えてくれる。さわやかな。


黒人の正当な不満が渦巻く蒸し暑い夏は、自由と平等のさわやかな秋になるまで、終わらないでしょう。


Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning.


1963年は終わりではなく、始まりの年なのです。


And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual.

blow off steam:蒸気を吐く。転じて、鬱憤を晴らす。

rude awakening:荒々しく叩き起こされる

business:ここでは日常作業、日常のこと。


黒人にはうっぷん晴らしが必要だったがもう収まるだろうと期待している人々は、この国がこのままもとの生活に戻ってゆくならいやな思いをすることになるでしょう。


And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights.

tranquility:平静


黒人に公民権が保証されるまで、安息も平静もアメリカにはあり得ないでしょう。


The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

whirlwind:竜巻。語源)whirl(渦)

revolt:反乱

emerge:登場する


正義が行われる明るい日が出てくるまでは、反乱の嵐は我が国の基礎を揺るがし続けることになるでしょう。


But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice:

threshold:敷居。入り口。


しかし、正義の殿堂にいたる暖かな入り口に立っている仲間に言わなければならない事があります。


In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds.

in the process of ~の過程で

be guilty of ~の罪を犯す。


我々の公正を得る過程で、我々は間違った行為を犯してはなりません。


Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.


自由への乾きを、恨みと憎悪の杯を口にすることで満たそうととしてはなりません。


We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline.


conduct:行う。実行する。

struggle:闘争

dignity and discipline:尊厳と規律


我々は尊厳と規律の高い次元で我々の闘いを永遠に実行しなければなりません。


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Election Night Speech in Grant Park:オバマ大統領勝利演説1

Election Night Speech in Grant Park

 

by Barack Obama in Chicago

Nov 5th 2008

 

 

 

Hello, Chicago!

If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible, who still wonders if the dream of our Founders is alive in our time, who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer.

 

Hello Chicago:都市名に呼びかけるのは英語の特徴。Hell Tokyo, Good-bye Saigon

Founder:アメリカの建国者。頭文字が大文字なので、固有名詞。

if there is anyone who doubts that ~:~を疑うものがいるとしたら。(以下、whoが繰り返される)

 

背景)シカゴで行われた大統領選の勝利演説(08115日)。オバマ大統領の「Yes, we can!」節が炸裂する演説。2008年大統領選は、金融危機真っ只中にあり、金権的な共和党政権への批判票を集めて、民主党が8年ぶりに政権を奪還した。

 

民主党は当初ヒラリー・クリントン上院議員を大統領候補に推す意見が強かったが、若きオバマの改革を求める呼び声に若者を中心として賛同者が集まり、指名を獲得。余勢を駆って選挙戦を勝ち抜いた。

 

しかし大恐慌以来の金融危機、アフガン戦争の行き詰まり、議会と大統領との対立など、彼の前には様々な難問が山積みされていた。それに対し大統領はまず支持者らに「これはあなたたちの勝利だ」と感謝し、続いてアメリカ人の可能性を鼓舞し、問題に立ち向かうよう、説得するのである。

 

It's the answer told by lines that stretched around schools and churches, in numbers this nation has never seen. By people who waited three hours and four hours, many for the first time in their lives, because they believed that this time must be different, that their voices could be that difference.

 

lines:行列

in numbers:多数

it's the answer told by lines that stretched around schools and churches:それは学校や教会の周りに伸びる行列によって語られる答えである→その答えは行列が語っている。

voices could be that difference:声がそのような違いとなることができる→声は違いを生み出せる。

 

It's the answer spoken by young and old, rich and poor, Democrat and Republican, black, white, Hispanic, Asian, Native American, gay, straight, disabled and not disabled. Americans who sent a message to the world that we have never been just a collection of individuals or a collection of red states and blue states. We are, and always will be, the United States of America.

 

straight:同性愛者でない人。異性愛者。

red/blue states:共和党/民主党支持州

Americans who sent a message that ~:~というメッセージを発するアメリカ人。

we are, and always will be ~:我々は~であり、常に~であり続ける。常用句。

     例)he is, and always will be an artist.

       I do, and always will love you.

 

It's the answer that led those who've been told for so long, by so many, to be cynical and fearful and doubtful about what we can achieve, to put their hands on the arc of history and bend it once more toward the hope of a better day.

 

it's the answer that led those to ~:それは人々を~に導いた答えである→それによって人々は~に導かれた→答えのおかげで、人々は~できた。

those who've been told to be cynical about what we can achieve:我々が達成できることについて、悲観的であるように教えられ続けてきた人々。

cynical:悲観的。

put hands on the arc of history and bend it toward~:歴史のアーチに手をかけ、~に向けて曲げる→歴史に手を伸ばし、~に向けて変える。

 

It's been a long time coming; but tonight, because of what we did on this day, in this election, at this defining moment, change has come to America.

 

It's been a long time coming:ここまで来るのに長い時間がかかった。

defining moment:決定的瞬間

 

A little bit earlier this evening, I received an extraordinarily gracious call from Senator McCain. Senator McCain fought long and hard in this campaign. And he's fought even longer and harder for the country that he loves. He has endured sacrifices for America that most of us cannot begin to imagine. We are better off for the service rendered by this brave and selfless leader.

 

extraordinarily gracious call:度を越した優雅な電話→実に丁重な電話

Senator McCain:マケイン上院議員。オバマの対抗馬。下院議員はcongressman

endure sacrifices for America:アメリカのために犠牲を払う

be better off:(暮らし向きが)良くなる

for the service rendered by McCain:マケインによって捧げられた献身によって

selfless:無私の。

この部分は、一年に渡る選挙戦によって分裂した世論を融和させるための、大統領選の定型的な演説。

 

I congratulate him, I congratulate Governor Palin for all that they've achieved. And I look forward to working with them to renew this nation's promise in the months ahead.

 

Governor Palin:ペイリン知事。アラスカ州知事。副大統領候補。

look forward to ing:期待する。楽しみにする。

 

I want to thank my partner in this journey, a man who campaigned from his heart, and spoke for the men and women he grew up with on the streets of Scranton, and rode with on the train home to Delaware, the vice president-elect of the United States, Joe Biden.

 

spoke for ~を代表して語る。~のために語る。

Scranton:バイデン副大統領の出身地。ペンシルベニア州。

spoke for the men and women he rode with on the train home to Delaware:デラウェアの自宅に電車で帰る途中で、乗り合わせた人々のために語った。

 

And I would not be standing here tonight without the unyielding support of my best friend for the last 16 years, the rock of our family, the love of my life, the nation's next First Lady, Michelle Obama.

 

would not be standing without~なしには立たない。英語に特徴的な二重否定で、強い肯定を表す。wouldも強い意思を表す表現。

unyielding:屈することのない。絶え間ない。

the rock of:礎(石)

 

Sasha and Malia! I love you both more than you can imagine. And you have earned the new puppy that's coming with us to the White House.

 

I love you more than you can imagine:あなたが思う以上に私は愛している。決まり文句。

   例)I work harder than you can imagine.

     I love you more than you can think.

earn a puppy:稼ぐ→よく働いたので、子犬を飼うことができる。

家族への謝辞も、勝利演説のパターン。

 

And while she's no longer with us, I know my grandmother's watching, along with the family that made me who I am. I miss them tonight. I know that my debt to them is beyond measure. To my sister Maya, my sister Alma, all my other brothers and sisters, thank you so much for all the support that you've given me. I'm grateful to them.

 

And while she's no longer with us:オバマ大統領の祖母は、彼の勝利する数ヶ月前に死去している。

the family that made me who I am:私(が何者であるか)を作り上げてくれた家族。

my debt to them is beyond measure:彼らからの借りは計り知れない→両親・祖父母が与えてくれたものは、計り知れない。(オバマにはケニアに腹違いの兄弟もいる)

I'm grateful to~に感謝する。thankよりも深い感謝をあらわす。

 

To my campaign manager, David Plouffe! The unsung hero of this campaign, who built the best, the best political campaign, I think, in the history of the United States of America.

 

campaign manager:選挙対策の責任者

unsung hero:歌われないヒーロー→縁の下の英雄。

 

To my chief strategist, David Axelrod, who's been a partner with me every step of the way.

To the best campaign team ever assembled in the history of politics! You made this happen, and I am forever grateful for what you've sacrificed to get it done.

 

chief strategist:戦略責任者。選挙参謀。アメリカの大組織にはこの種のポストが設置されていることが多い。

with me every step of the way:道のりの一歩ずつを私とともに歩いてくれた。

 

But above all, I will never forget who this victory truly belongs to. It belongs to you. It belongs to you.

I was never the likeliest candidate for this office. We didn't start with much money or many endorsements. Our campaign was not hatched in the halls of Washington. It began in the backyards of Des Moines, and the living rooms of Concord, and the front porches of Charleston. It was built by working men and women who dug into what little savings they had to give $5 and $10 and $20 to the cause.

 

likeliest candidate:有力な候補。

endorsements:(有力者からの)後援。

hatch:孵化する。始まる。

Des Moines:アイオワ州の州都。全米で最初に党員集会を行う都市であるため、実質上、大統領選挙戦はここからスタートする。

Concord:ニューハンプシャー州の州都。語義は「協調」。

Charleston:サウスカロライナ州の都市。

front porch:玄関のポーチ。

dig into saving:(なけなしの)貯金を取り崩す。

to the cause:運動に。

 

It drew strength from the young people who rejected the myth of their generation's apathy, who left their homes and their families for jobs that offered little pay and less sleep.

 

it(=campaign) draw strength from the young people:選挙戦は若者から強さを導出した→若者が(選挙戦に)力を与えてくれた。

generation's apathy:(若者)世代の無関心。アメリカ30代の世代はgeneration Xと呼ばれ、政治的に無関心な傾向があるとされる。それに対し20代はgeneration Yと呼ばれ、無関心という前評判をはねのけ、積極的に政治参加し、オバマ当選の原動力となった。

jobs:ここでは選挙戦のボランティアのこと。

 

It drew strength from the not-so-young people who braved the bitter cold and scorching heat to knock on doors of perfect strangers, and from the millions of Americans who volunteered and organized and proved that more than two centuries later, a government of the people, by the people, and for the people has not perished from this Earth.

 

braved the bitter cold and scorching heat:凍てつく寒さと焼け付く暑さに耐えて

perish:消え去る。滅ぶ。無になる。

It drew strength from Americans who proved that a government of the people has not perished:人民のための政府は滅んでいないということを証明したアメリカ人から力を得た。

 

This is your victory.

And I know you didn't do this just to win an election. And I know you didn't do it for me. You did it because you understand the enormity of the task that lies ahead. For even as we celebrate tonight, we know the challenges that tomorrow will bring are the greatest of our lifetime: two wars, a planet in peril, the worst financial crisis in a century.

 

the enormity of the task:課題の巨大さ→巨大な課題。the ad-noun of nounad noun.

the beauty of the woman = the beautiful woman

I could not endure the hardness of the work.= I could not endure the hard work.

two wars:アフガン戦争、イラク戦争のこと。

a planet in peril:地球規模の環境破壊のこと。

 

Even as we stand here tonight, we know there are brave Americans waking up in the deserts of Iraq and the mountains of Afghanistan, to risk their lives for us.

 

risk their lives:自らの命を危険にさらして。己の命を犠牲にして。

 

There are mothers and fathers who will lie awake after the children fall asleep and wonder how they'll make the mortgage, or pay their doctor's bills, or save enough for their child's college education.

 

make the mortgage:住宅ローンを払う。mortgageは抵当、担保のことだが、通常不動産ローンの意。

 

There's new energy to harness, new jobs to be created, new schools to build, and threats to meet, alliances to repair.

 

harness:利用する。原義は「馬に引き具を付ける」。

 

The road ahead will be long. Our climb will be steep. We may not get there in one year or even in one term. But, America, I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we WILL get there.

I promise you, we as a people will get there.

 

steep:急である。

term:期間。ここでは任期(4年)のこと。

困難を強調し、後に解決への強い意志を示すのは、スピーチの一つのパターン。

I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that~:~に関して、今晩よりもより希望的だったことはない→今晩ほど希望に満ちたことはない。

as a people:国民として。peopleは可算の場合は国民、民族を表わす。

 

There will be setbacks and false starts. There are many who won't agree with every decision or policy I make as president. And we know the government can't solve every problem.

 

setback:後退

 

But I will always be honest with you about the challenges we face. I will listen to you, especially when we disagree. And above all, I will ask you to join in the work of remaking this nation, the only way it's been done in America for 221 years; block by block, brick by brick, calloused hand by calloused hand.

 

221 years1787年は、独立戦争の勝利をうけ、憲法制定会議が開催された年。アメリカという政府が創始された象徴的な年である。

calloused hand:タコだらけの手

 

What began 21 months ago in the depths of winter cannot end on this autumn night. This victory alone is not the change we seek. It is only the chance for us to make that change. And that cannot happen if we go back to the way things were. It can't happen without you, without a new spirit of service, a new spirit of sacrifice. So let us summon a new spirit of patriotism, of responsibility, where each of us resolves to pitch in and work harder and look after not only ourselves but each other.

 

summon:呼び覚ます。summon a spirit「精霊を呼び覚ます」

resolve to~:~しようと(堅く)決意する

pitch in:協力する

let us summon a spirit of patriotism, where each of us resolves to pitch in and work harder:愛国心の精神を呼び覚まし、(その精神のなかで)我々の一人一人が協力し、より勤勉に働くと堅く決心しよう。

 

Let us remember that if this financial crisis taught us anything, it's that we cannot have a thriving Wall Street while Main Street suffers.

 

if this financial crisis taught us anything:もし金融危機が我々に何か教えてくれたなら

Main Street:表通り。主要街路。ここでは実体経済のこと。

 

In this country, we rise or fall as one nation, as one people. Let's resist the temptation to fall back on the same partisanship and pettiness and immaturity that has poisoned our politics for so long.

 

partisanship党利主義

pettinessとるに足りない(争い)

temptation to fall back on the partisanship:党利主義に落ち込むような誘惑

2006年の中間選挙以後、国会多数派は民主党、大統領は共和党というねじれ現象が発生し、アメリカ政治は機能不全に陥っていた。

 

Let's remember that it was a man from this state who first carried the banner of the Republican Party to the White House, a party founded on the values of self-reliance and individual liberty and national unity. Those are values that we all share. And while the Democratic Party has won a great victory tonight, we do so with a measure of humility and determination to heal the divides that have held back our progress.

 

a man from this state who ~:リンカーンのこと。リンカーンは最初にホワイトハウス入りした共和党員。オバマは同じイリノイ州出身のリンカーンを自分の手本として、たびたび引き合いに出している。また当時の共和党の思想は、現在の民主党に近いという点も、親近感のもととなっているようだ。

self-reliance and individual liberty:自己扶助と個人の自由

with a measure of humility and determination:いささかの謙虚さと決意をもって。

hold back our progress;我々の前進を妨げる

 

As Lincoln said to a nation far more divided than ours, we are not enemies but friends. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.

 

a nation far more divided than ours:リンカーンは内戦(南北戦争)当時の大統領。

strained:(糸が)もつれる

affection:愛情

 

And to those Americans whose support I have yet to earn, I may not have won your vote tonight, but I hear your voices. I need your help. And I will be your president, too.

 

whose support I have yet to earn:その支持を私がまだ得られていない。supportにつく動詞はgetでなく、earn

win your vote:あなた方の投票を勝ち得ていない。

 

And all those watching tonight from beyond our shores, from parliaments and palaces, to those who are huddled around radios in the forgotten corners of the world, our stories are singular, but our destiny is shared; and a new dawn of American leadership is at hand.

To those who would tear the world down. We will defeat you.

 

beyond our shores:海岸を越えて。海の向こうで。

parliaments and palaces:議会と王宮。

be huddled around radio:ラジオの周りに身を寄せ合う。

our stories are singular:我々の(身の上)話はそれぞれ異なるが。

 

Election Night Speech in Grant Park:オバマ大統領勝利演説2に続く


試し読みできます

We Shall Fight on the Beaches:チャーチル首相・対独戦演説1

 

June 4, 1940

Winston Churchill "We Shall Fight on the Beaches"

House of Commons

 


 

解説)193991日にドイツのポーランド侵攻で始まった第二次世界大戦は、その後半年ほど小競り合いが続いていたが、翌年510日、ヒトラーは突如ベルギーに侵入。マジノ線を迂回し、瞬く間にフランス軍を制圧し、英仏連合軍をダンケルクに追い詰めた。それに対し、イギリス軍は「ダイナモ(発電機)作戦」を発動。官民双方の艦船を利用し、連合軍の撤退を敢行した。その際のチャーチルの下院での演説である。


チャーチルの祖先はマルボロ公(スペイン継承戦争でのイギリス軍最高司令官)で、父は蔵相などをつとめた有力政治家。彼自身も20代で議員となり、各種大臣を歴任して、第一次世界大戦は海軍相となり、世界初となる戦車の開発などを行った。


戦後はナチスの脅威を主張し、宥和政策をとるイギリス政界主流派からは疎外されていたが、39年に第二次世界大戦が勃発すると、にわかに脚光を浴び、海相に復帰。翌年、保守党から首相に任命された。


その強力なリーダーシップ、鋭い洞察力、鼓舞的な演説などにより、ドイツのイギリス侵攻を阻止。米ソと同盟を組んで、戦争を勝利に導いた。だが戦後は選挙に敗退して下野。その後は執筆活動にいそしみ、自らの戦争記録を綴った「第二次世界大戦回顧録」でノーベル文学賞を受賞した。

 

彼の声質はボソボソして必ずしも演説向きとは言えないのだが、原稿には高度な修辞法が駆使されており、格調高くかつ情熱的に仕上げられている。演説はyoutubeから視聴できるが、完全版ではないので注意。

 


 

All their armored divisions-or what was left of them-together with great masses of infantry and artillery, hurled themselves in vain upon the ever-narrowing, ever-contracting appendix within which the British and French Armies fought.

 

All their:ドイツのこと

armored division:師団

infantry:歩兵

artillery:砲兵

hurl upon~に投げつける、放る。

in vain:空しく

ever-contracting:縮みつつある

appendix:突出


Meanwhile, the Royal Navy, with the willing help of countless merchant seamen, strained every nerve to embark the British and Allied troops; 220 light warships and 650 other vessels were engaged. They had to operate upon the difficult coast, often in adverse weather, under an almost ceaseless hail of bombs and an increasing concentration of artillery fire.

 

merchant:商人。商業。

strain every nerve:全神経を引き締めて

embark:上陸させる

engage従事する

adverse:不都合な。悪天候の。

ceaseless:絶え間のない

hail:あいさつ。あられ。(どちらでも文意は通じるが、おそらく後者)


Nor were the seas, as I have said, themselves free from mines and torpedoes. It was in conditions such as these that our men carried on, with little or no rest, for days and nights on end, making trip after trip across the dangerous waters, bringing with them always men whom they had rescued. The numbers they have brought back are the measure of their devotion and their courage.


Nor were the seas themselves free from mines and torpedoes

= The seas were not themselves free from ... 海自体、機雷や魚雷がないという訳でない。

carry on:実行する

for days nights on end:昼も夜も、朝から晩まで。

make trip:旅する。往来する。

measure:尺度。象徴。

devotion:貢献。


The hospital ships, which brought off many thousands of British and French wounded, being so plainly marked were a special target for Nazi bombs; but the men and women on board them never faltered in their duty.


be marked:注目される。マークされる。

falter:ひるむ、たじろぐ。


Meanwhile, the Royal Air Force, which had already been intervening in the battle, so far as its range would allow, from home bases, now used part of its main metropolitan fighter strength, and struck at the German bombers and at the fighters which in large numbers protected them. This struggle was protracted and fierce.


metropolitan fighter strength:都市防空力

strike at~を攻撃する。

bombers:爆撃機。

fighters:戦闘機。

be protracted:伸びる。長い。

fierce:獰猛な。激しい。


Suddenly the scene has cleared, the crash and thunder has for the moment-but only for the moment-died away. A miracle of deliverance, achieved by valor, by perseverance, by perfect discipline, by faultless service, by resource, by skill, by unconquerable fidelity, is manifest to us all. The enemy was hurled back by the retreating British and French troops.


scene has cleared:場面は一変した。

for the moment:一瞬

deliverance = rescue

valor:勇気

perseverance:忍耐

discipline:修養、鍛錬。

fidelity:忠誠。

be manifest to~にとって明白である。

hurl back:打ち返す。反撃する。ドイツ軍は英仏軍に反撃され、追撃をやめたということ。なぜヒトラーが追撃をやめたかについては、イギリスを殲滅するのが目的でなく、単に力を示して屈服させたかったなど諸説ある。


He (=the enemy) was so roughly handled that he did not hurry their departure seriously. (The Royal Air Force engaged the main strength of the German Air Force, and inflicted upon them losses of at least four to one; and the Navy, using nearly 1,000 ships of all kinds, carried over 335,000 men, French and British, out of the jaws of death and shame, to their native land and to the tasks which lie immediately ahead. )


engage = fight

main strength:主力

inflict upon A B: AにBを負わせる。


We must be very careful not to assign to this deliverance the attributes of a victory. Wars are not won by evacuations. But there was a victory inside this deliverance, which should be noted. It was gained by the Air Force. Many of our soldiers coming back have not seen the Air Force at work; they saw only the bombers which escaped its (= the Royal Air Force's) protective attack. They underrate its achievements. I have heard much talk of this; that is why I go out of my way to say this. I will tell you about it.


assign A to B = assign to B A =AをBに帰する。AをBのせいにする。勝利の特質をこの救出のせいにする。

attribute:性質。特質。象徴。

evacuation:脱出。

underrate = underestimate

go out of my wa to ~:わざわざ~する。あえて~する。


This was a great trial of strength between the British and German Air Forces. Can you conceive a greater objective for the Germans in the air than to make evacuation from these beaches impossible, and to sink all these ships which were displayed, almost to the extent of thousands? Could there have been an objective of greater military importance and significance for the whole purpose of the war than this?


conceive:考え付く。想像する。

greater objective than to make evacuation from these beaches impossible:海岸からの脱出を不可能にすることより大きな目的


They tried hard, and they were beaten back; they were frustrated in their task. We got the Army away; and they have paid fourfold for any losses which they have inflicted. (Very large formations of German aeroplanes-and we know that they are a very brave race-have turned on several occasions from the attack of one-quarter of their number of the Royal Air Force, and have dispersed in different directions.


turn on:ひっくり返る。

disperse:蹴散らす。追い散らす。


Twelve aeroplanes have been hunted by two. One aeroplane was driven into the water and cast away by the mere charge of a British aeroplane, which had no more ammunition. All of our types-the Hurricane, the Spitfire and the new Defiant-and all our pilots have been vindicated as superior to what they have (at present) to face.)


cast away:遭難する。

ammunition:弾薬。

types:ここでは、戦闘機の型のこと。

Hurricane:ホーカー社のハリケーン戦闘機。1世代前の戦闘機で、ドイツ機よりも性能が劣っていたが、その頑丈な機体のおかげでイギリス防空に貢献した。

Spitfire:スーパーマリン社のスピットファイア戦闘機。イギリスを代表する戦闘機で、軽快な主翼と強力なエンジンを装備し、防空だけでなく様々な任務に使われた。ちなみに名前はspit+fireつまり「火吐き」。

vindicate as~であると主張する。自分らが直面しなければならない相手よりも優れていると、主張する。


When we consider how much greater would be our advantage in defending the air above this Island against an overseas attack, I must say that I find in these facts a sure basis upon which practical and reassuring thoughts may rest. I will pay my tribute to these young airmen. The great French Army was very largely, for the time being, cast back and disturbed by the onrush of a few thousands of armored vehicles.


I find in these facts a sure basis upon which practical and reassuring thoughts may rest

= これらの事実の中に、実践的で安心できる考えが根づける、確かな基礎を発見する。

pay tribute to ~に賞賛、賛辞を送る。

for the time being:さしあたり。

be cast back:投げ出される。


May it not also be that the cause of civilization itself will be defended by the skill and devotion of a few thousand airmen? There never has been, I suppose, in all the world, in all the history of war, such an opportunity for youth. The Knights of the Round Table, the Crusaders, all fall back into the past-not only distant but prosaic;


cause:大義。目標。

May it be that ~ = It may be that ~ = ~かもしれない。

The Knights of the Round Table:円卓の騎士。アーサー王とその仲間の騎士ら。

the Crusaders:十字軍。

prosaic:つまらない。平凡な。


these young men, going forth every morn to guard their native land and all that we stand for, holding in their hands these instruments of colossal and shattering power, of whom it may be said that [every morn brought forth a noble chance] and [every chance brought forth a noble knight], deserve our gratitude, as do all the brave men who, in so many ways and on so many occasions, are ready, and continue ready to give life and all for their native land.


この段落の全体構造は以下の通り。

these young men (=S)

     ①going forth every morn to guard their native land and all that we stand for

     ②holding in their hands these instruments of colossal and shattering power

     ③of whom it may be said that [every morn brought forth a noble chance]

        and [every chance brought forth a noble knight]

deserve our gratitude (= V + O)

①as do all the brave men who, in so many ways and on so many occasions, are ready, and continue ready to give life and all for their native land.

 

morn = morning

stand for :支持する

colossal:巨大な

shattring:破壊的な。粉砕するような。

bring forth:もたらす。

deseve gratitude:感謝に値する


(I return to the Army. In the long series of very fierce battles, now on this front, now on that, fighting on three fronts at once, battles fought by two or three divisions against an equal or somewhat larger number of the enemy, and fought fiercely on some of the old grounds that so many of us knew so well-in these battles our losses in men have exceeded 30,000 killed, wounded and missing.


three fronts:海岸を除く3正面


I take occasion to express the sympathy of the House to all who have suffered bereavement or who are still anxious. The President of the Board of Trade [Sir Andrew Duncan] is not here today. His son has been killed, and many in the House have felt the pangs of affliction in the sharpest form.


take occasion to:この機会を利用して

the House:議会

bereavement:(肉親との)死別。

pang:痛み。心痛。

affliction:苦悩。


But I will say this about the missing: We have had a large number of wounded come home safely to this country, but I would say about the missing that there may be very many reported missing who will come back home, some day, in one way or another. In the confusion of this fight it is inevitable that many have been left in positions where honor required no further resistance from them.


honor required no further resistance from them:名誉が彼らからより大きな忍耐を必要としない。降伏しても不名誉とはならない。(「武士道精神」により、徹底抗戦、降伏よりも死を選ぶことの多かった日本軍に対し、欧米では「騎士道精神」により、ある程度戦ったら降伏する習慣があった。言わば戦争は中世的な「戦争試合」と捉えられており、チャーチルが「円卓の騎士」「十字軍」を引き合いに出しているのも、そのためである。しかし戦争が激化するにつれ、騎士道精神は忘れ去られ、大量虐殺が日常化していく)


Against this loss of over 30,000 men, we can set a far heavier loss certainly inflicted upon the enemy. But our losses in material are enormous. We have perhaps lost one-third of the men we lost in the opening days of the battle of 21st March, 1918, but we have lost nearly as many guns -- nearly one thousand-and all our transport, all the armored vehicles that were with the Army in the north.


21st March, 1918:第一次世界大戦末期に行われた、ドイツ軍の春季攻勢の初日。ドイツ軍は英仏軍の間隙を衝いてパリ近郊にまで到達。パリ砲撃に成功した。

transport:軍用トラック


This loss will impose a further delay on the expansion of our military strength. That expansion had not been proceeding as far as we had hoped. [The best of all we had to give] had gone to the British Expeditionary Force, and although they had not the numbers of tanks and some articles of equipment which were desirable, they were a very well and finely equipped Army.


British Expeditionary Force: フランス・ベルギー国境に派遣されていた英軍。精鋭部隊であった。

desirable:望ましい


They had the first-fruits of all that our industry had to give, and that is gone. And now here is this further delay. How long it will be, how long it will last, depends upon the exertions which we make in this Island. An effort the like of which has never been seen in our records is now being made. Work is proceeding everywhere, night and day, Sundays and week days.

 

exertion:努力。尽力。

the like of which:それと似たような。


Capital and Labor have cast aside their interests, rights, and customs and put them into the common stock. Already the flow of munitions has leaped forward. There is no reason why we should not in a few months overtake the sudden and serious loss that has come upon us, without retarding the development of our general program.)


Capital and Labor:資本家と労働者。

cast aside :棄てる。脇に置く。

common stock:普通株。ここでは「共通の財産」の意。

munition:軍需品。


Nevertheless, our thankfulness at the escape of our Army and so many men, whose loved ones have passed through an agonizing week, must not blind us to the fact that what has happened in France and Belgium is a colossal military disaster.

 

our thankfullness at the escape:脱出を感謝すること。これが主語で、動詞はmust not blind、目的語はus。


The French Army has been weakened, the Belgian Army has been lost, a large part of those fortified lines upon which so much faith had been reposed is gone, many valuable mining districts and factories have passed into the enemy's possession, the whole of the Channel ports are in his hands, with all the tragic consequences that follow from that, and we must expect another blow to be struck almost immediately at us or at France.

 

repose = rest

mining district:鉱区。第一次世界大戦の結果、フランスに奪われた、天然資源豊かなアルザス・ロレーヌ地方の奪還が、ドイツの対仏参戦の理由の一つとされる。

the Channel:ドーバー海峡。

with all the tragic consequences that follow from that:そのこと(ドイツがドーバー海峡の港を占領したこと)から続く全ての悲劇的な結果=英仏侵攻のこと。


(2へ続く)


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