We Shall Fight on the Beaches：チャーチル首相・対独戦演説１
June 4, 1940
Winston Churchill "We Shall Fight on the Beaches"
House of Commons
All their armored divisions-or what was left of them-together with great masses of infantry and artillery, hurled themselves in vain upon the ever-narrowing, ever-contracting appendix within which the British and French Armies fought.
Meanwhile, the Royal Navy, with the willing help of countless merchant seamen, strained every nerve to embark the British and Allied troops; 220 light warships and 650 other vessels were engaged. They had to operate upon the difficult coast, often in adverse weather, under an almost ceaseless hail of bombs and an increasing concentration of artillery fire.
strain every nerve：全神経を引き締めて
Nor were the seas, as I have said, themselves free from mines and torpedoes. It was in conditions such as these that our men carried on, with little or no rest, for days and nights on end, making trip after trip across the dangerous waters, bringing with them always men whom they had rescued. The numbers they have brought back are the measure of their devotion and their courage.
Nor were the seas themselves free from mines and torpedoes
= The seas were not themselves free from ... 海自体、機雷や魚雷がないという訳でない。
for days nights on end：昼も夜も、朝から晩まで。
The hospital ships, which brought off many thousands of British and French wounded, being so plainly marked were a special target for Nazi bombs; but the men and women on board them never faltered in their duty.
Meanwhile, the Royal Air Force, which had already been intervening in the battle, so far as its range would allow, from home bases, now used part of its main metropolitan fighter strength, and struck at the German bombers and at the fighters which in large numbers protected them. This struggle was protracted and fierce.
metropolitan fighter strength：大都市防空力
Suddenly the scene has cleared, the crash and thunder has for the moment-but only for the moment-died away. A miracle of deliverance, achieved by valor, by perseverance, by perfect discipline, by faultless service, by resource, by skill, by unconquerable fidelity, is manifest to us all. The enemy was hurled back by the retreating British and French troops.
scene has cleared：場面は一変した。
for the moment：一瞬
deliverance = rescue
be manifest to～にとって明白である。
He (=the enemy) was so roughly handled that he did not hurry their departure seriously. (The Royal Air Force engaged the main strength of the German Air Force, and inflicted upon them losses of at least four to one; and the Navy, using nearly 1,000 ships of all kinds, carried over 335,000 men, French and British, out of the jaws of death and shame, to their native land and to the tasks which lie immediately ahead. )
engage = fight
inflict upon A B： ＡにＢを負わせる。
We must be very careful not to assign to this deliverance the attributes of a victory. Wars are not won by evacuations. But there was a victory inside this deliverance, which should be noted. It was gained by the Air Force. Many of our soldiers coming back have not seen the Air Force at work; they saw only the bombers which escaped its (= the Royal Air Force's) protective attack. They underrate its achievements. I have heard much talk of this; that is why I go out of my way to say this. I will tell you about it.
assign A to B = assign to B A =ＡをＢに帰する。ＡをＢのせいにする。勝利の特質をこの救出のせいにする。
underrate = underestimate
go out of my wa to ~：わざわざ～する。あえて～する。
This was a great trial of strength between the British and German Air Forces. Can you conceive a greater objective for the Germans in the air than to make evacuation from these beaches impossible, and to sink all these ships which were displayed, almost to the extent of thousands? Could there have been an objective of greater military importance and significance for the whole purpose of the war than this?
greater objective than to make evacuation from these beaches impossible：海岸からの脱出を不可能にすることより大きな目的
They tried hard, and they were beaten back; they were frustrated in their task. We got the Army away; and they have paid fourfold for any losses which they have inflicted. (Very large formations of German aeroplanes-and we know that they are a very brave race-have turned on several occasions from the attack of one-quarter of their number of the Royal Air Force, and have dispersed in different directions.
Twelve aeroplanes have been hunted by two. One aeroplane was driven into the water and cast away by the mere charge of a British aeroplane, which had no more ammunition. All of our types-the Hurricane, the Spitfire and the new Defiant-and all our pilots have been vindicated as superior to what they have (at present) to face.)
When we consider how much greater would be our advantage in defending the air above this Island against an overseas attack, I must say that I find in these facts a sure basis upon which practical and reassuring thoughts may rest. I will pay my tribute to these young airmen. The great French Army was very largely, for the time being, cast back and disturbed by the onrush of a few thousands of armored vehicles.
I find in these facts a sure basis upon which practical and reassuring thoughts may rest
pay tribute to ～に賞賛、賛辞を送る。
for the time being：さしあたり。
be cast back：投げ出される。
May it not also be that the cause of civilization itself will be defended by the skill and devotion of a few thousand airmen? There never has been, I suppose, in all the world, in all the history of war, such an opportunity for youth. The Knights of the Round Table, the Crusaders, all fall back into the past-not only distant but prosaic;
May it be that ~ = It may be that ~ = ～かもしれない。
The Knights of the Round Table：円卓の騎士。アーサー王とその仲間の騎士ら。
these young men, going forth every morn to guard their native land and all that we stand for, holding in their hands these instruments of colossal and shattering power, of whom it may be said that [every morn brought forth a noble chance] and [every chance brought forth a noble knight], deserve our gratitude, as do all the brave men who, in so many ways and on so many occasions, are ready, and continue ready to give life and all for their native land.
these young men (=S)
①going forth every morn to guard their native land and all that we stand for
②holding in their hands these instruments of colossal and shattering power
③of whom it may be said that [every morn brought forth a noble chance]
and [every chance brought forth a noble knight]
deserve our gratitude (= V + O)
①as do all the brave men who, in so many ways and on so many occasions, are ready, and continue ready to give life and all for their native land.
morn = morning
stand for ：支持する
(I return to the Army. In the long series of very fierce battles, now on this front, now on that, fighting on three fronts at once, battles fought by two or three divisions against an equal or somewhat larger number of the enemy, and fought fiercely on some of the old grounds that so many of us knew so well-in these battles our losses in men have exceeded 30,000 killed, wounded and missing.
I take occasion to express the sympathy of the House to all who have suffered bereavement or who are still anxious. The President of the Board of Trade [Sir Andrew Duncan] is not here today. His son has been killed, and many in the House have felt the pangs of affliction in the sharpest form.
take occasion to：この機会を利用して
But I will say this about the missing: We have had a large number of wounded come home safely to this country, but I would say about the missing that there may be very many reported missing who will come back home, some day, in one way or another. In the confusion of this fight it is inevitable that many have been left in positions where honor required no further resistance from them.
honor required no further resistance from them：名誉が彼らからより大きな忍耐を必要としない。降伏しても不名誉とはならない。（「武士道精神」により、徹底抗戦、降伏よりも死を選ぶことの多かった日本軍に対し、欧米では「騎士道精神」により、ある程度戦ったら降伏する習慣があった。言わば戦争は中世的な「戦争試合」と捉えられており、チャーチルが「円卓の騎士」「十字軍」を引き合いに出しているのも、そのためである。しかし戦争が激化するにつれ、騎士道精神は忘れ去られ、大量虐殺が日常化していく）
Against this loss of over 30,000 men, we can set a far heavier loss certainly inflicted upon the enemy. But our losses in material are enormous. We have perhaps lost one-third of the men we lost in the opening days of the battle of 21st March, 1918, but we have lost nearly as many guns -- nearly one thousand-and all our transport, all the armored vehicles that were with the Army in the north.
21st March, 1918：第一次世界大戦末期に行われた、ドイツ軍の春季攻勢の初日。ドイツ軍は英仏軍の間隙を衝いてパリ近郊にまで到達。パリ砲撃に成功した。
This loss will impose a further delay on the expansion of our military strength. That expansion had not been proceeding as far as we had hoped. [The best of all we had to give] had gone to the British Expeditionary Force, and although they had not the numbers of tanks and some articles of equipment which were desirable, they were a very well and finely equipped Army.
British Expeditionary Force： フランス・ベルギー国境に派遣されていた英軍。精鋭部隊であった。
They had the first-fruits of all that our industry had to give, and that is gone. And now here is this further delay. How long it will be, how long it will last, depends upon the exertions which we make in this Island. An effort the like of which has never been seen in our records is now being made. Work is proceeding everywhere, night and day, Sundays and week days.
the like of which：それと似たような。
Capital and Labor have cast aside their interests, rights, and customs and put them into the common stock. Already the flow of munitions has leaped forward. There is no reason why we should not in a few months overtake the sudden and serious loss that has come upon us, without retarding the development of our general program.)
Capital and Labor：資本家と労働者。
cast aside ：棄てる。脇に置く。
Nevertheless, our thankfulness at the escape of our Army and so many men, whose loved ones have passed through an agonizing week, must not blind us to the fact that what has happened in France and Belgium is a colossal military disaster.
our thankfullness at the escape：脱出を感謝すること。これが主語で、動詞はmust not blind、目的語はus。
The French Army has been weakened, the Belgian Army has been lost, a large part of those fortified lines upon which so much faith had been reposed is gone, many valuable mining districts and factories have passed into the enemy's possession, the whole of the Channel ports are in his hands, with all the tragic consequences that follow from that, and we must expect another blow to be struck almost immediately at us or at France.
repose = rest
with all the tragic consequences that follow from that：そのこと（ドイツがドーバー海峡の港を占領したこと）から続く全ての悲劇的な結果＝英仏侵攻のこと。