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Life

Japanese people were privileged to feel the courage to live out the jeopardy thanks to American soldiers' dedicated activity.

Even if they were on the official mission of "Operation Tomodachi" but unless each one of them have a warm heart caring for others in misery, they could not be so sweet for kids and such a scene as two men taking hold hands so firmly could not be seen.   

 ​

Caring mind and kindness for other people in catastrophic situations may be inherent nature of human being regardless of race or gender. This is the origin of peace and hormony. 

This is PartⅡ in addition to Part Ⅰ to support the Class Action of unfortunate sailors of USS Ronald Reagan who suffer chronical health damage by the internal radiation exposure from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant(DNPP).
 
1) Seven years since・・・
 
402 unfortunate victimes of of Fukushima DNPP accident.
This lady has lost her eye-sight soon after this photo was taken. Watch the video here.
 

Although the position of USS Ronald Reagan of March 24 is not on the map, I was curious why these sailors didn't wear any protective gear while working on the deck. 

 

 
Massive radiation plume includin 239Pu from Unit 4 on March 15 arrived at California on March 24 as discussed in Part Ⅰ. It took 9 days to get there. 

 

There were three waves of radiation plume from Fukushima DNNP and the second wave was the major focuss of the discussion in PartⅠ


The third plume wave is the theme to discuss here.

 

 
The third wave was observed at the IAEA laboratory 100 Km south from Fkushima DNPP on March 21 and the wave reached Alaska on April 1, 11 days later if 234U were a major nuclide of the plume. 

 


Mystery

2) Where did U234 come from?
 
Let's take a look again at photographs of that Facebook site partly quoted in the partⅠ.
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


It was March 15 when more than 1000 mSv/h was detected inside Unit 4 (in Part Ⅰ) 
and smoke and steam were from spent fuel pool(SFP) as seen on March 18 and March 20, respectively.
And regarding the heat signiture of March 20 (below), the author says that heat signiture is observed in the core, Equipment pool and SFP but SEP shows more heat
 

 
The next two photographs are of March 24 to see the steam rising the center but not from SFP. 
 

 

The heat signiture of the same date to show that the core is the highest heat source.

 

The core, SFP and Equipment pool, all of them show high heat signiture on March 28.

The steam observed at the March 24 photograph is from the reactor core but not from SFP in the structural perspective below.

 

 

The web site owner's comment goes; 

 

This picture shows reactor 4 bellowing steam from the centre of the building (Top Pic) where the core is located. The bottom picture shows reactor 4 building lay out sized to the same size as the top picture. We can see the equipment pool on the left of the bottom pic (north) and the spent fuel pool on the right (south) We can also see the the equipment pool is not as deep as the core or the spent fuel pool meaning if low water condition existed the fuel in the equipment pool would burn and meltdown first. This would explain the molten mass out the north wall of R4, it would also explain why R4 north wall is pushed out and caved in at the top.

 

R3 exploded before R4 and R4 north wall was not pushed in then it had to of happened from the high heat of a fire when the equipment pool melted down and left the building which caused reactor four hydrogen to build up and explode. 

There is no question I think, TEPCO and the nuclear industry are lying about Reactor 4. Is the SFP all burned up? I don't think it all is... but its defiantly damaged and defiantly lost some fuel. Pictures show steam so that means water and current 2013 images show intact fuel so it could not have gone completely dry as there would not be such intact fuel assemblies as we see now. 

Did the equipment pool go dry? well it looks like it

Did the core burn? well it looks like it

Did the R4SFP burn? well it looks like it did partially not fully.  

 
It is a mystery if there was a specific reason for US EPA monitorerd 234Uranium as a target compound because 234Uranium occurs as an indirect decay product of uranium-238, but it makes up only 0.0055% (55 parts per million) of the raw uranium.


Hypothesis

The answer is not known but IAEA Technical Report page 119 states;
 
Unit 4 had been shut down for the planned refuelling outage since 30 November 2010. The reactor was disassembled, with the head removed at the time of the earthquake. The cavity gates were installed, isolating the SFP from the upper refuelling pools. All fuel assemblies had been transferred from the core to the SFP. In total, 1331 spent fuel assemblies and 204 new fuel assemblies were stored inside the SFP, having an estimated decay heat of 2.26 MW by 11 March. The SFP temperature was 27°C at the time of the earthquake. 
 
Let's take the statement as it is but no public information is available about 204 new fuel assemblies because IAEA Report says as discussed in Part Ⅰthat they didn't consider core invenories of Unit 4 at all and SFPs of Unit 1 to 3. 

Let's proceed the discussion with a hypothesis that those 204 new fuel assemblies were new type of MOX fuel.

3) 234U from Depleted Uranium for MOX fuel?
 
There are some grounds for this hypothesis;
1) 239Plutnium released from Unit 4 is the main component of weapon grade plutonium and 2) MOX fuel development using weapon grade plutonium mixing with depleted uranium has been the popular agenda as read in the bold text of the capure of World Nuclear Association.  
 

 
Here are their explanation;
 
The plutonium, as an oxide, is then mixed with depleted uranium left over from an enrichment plant to form fresh mixed oxide fuel (MOX, which is UO2+PuO2). MOX fuel, consisting of about 7-11% plutonium mixed with depleted uranium, is equivalent to uranium oxide fuel enriched to about 4.5% U-235, assuming that the plutonium has about two-thirds fissile isotopes. If weapons plutonium is used (>90% Pu-239), only about 5% plutonium is needed in the mix. The plutonium content of commercial MOX fuel varies up to 10.8% depending on the design of the fuel, and averages about 9.5%. Fuel in an EPR with 30% MOX having less than 10.8% plutonium is equivalent to 4.2% enriched uranium fuel. An EPR with 100% MOX fuel can use a wider variety of used fuel material (in relation to burn-up, initial enrichment, plutonium quality) than with only 30% MOX.
 
Recovered uranium from a reprocessing plant may be re-enriched on its own for use as fresh fuel. Because it contains some neutron-absorbing U-234 and U-236, reprocessed uranium must be enriched significantly (e.g. one-tenth) more than is required for natural uranium. Thus reprocessed uranium from low-burn-up fuel is more likely to be suitable for re-enrichment, while that from high burn-up fuel is best used for blending or MOX fabrication.
 
Then, read about Depleted Uran munition regarding U-234 produced in the process of Uranium enrichment below the capture.
 

 
Like most radionuclides, it is not known as a carcinogen, or to cause birth defects (from effects in utero) or to cause genetic mutations. Radiation from DU munitions depends on how long since the uranium has been separated from the lighter isotopes so that its decay products start to build up. Decay of U-238 gives rise to Th-234, Pa-234 (beta emitters) and U-234 (an alpha emitter)m. On this basis, in a few months, DU is weakly radioactive with an activity of around 40 kBq/g quoted. (If it is fresh from the enrichment plant and hence fairly pure, the activity is 15 kBq/g, compared with 25 kBq/g for pure natural uranium. Fresh DU from enriching reprocessed uranium has U-236 in it and more U-234 so is about 23 kBq/g.)

If the thermographic picture is genuin, there was high heat signiture in the core and equipment pool beside SFP, which means that there were something to generate heat even if "All fuel assemblies had been transferred from the core to the SFP"asthe IAEA Technical Report states.
What is something?
 
According to the heat signiture of March 20, SFP shows more heat than the core and equipment pool.
But there were heat source in the core and equipment pool.
What are the heat sources?


Depleted Uranium

As IAEA Technical Report says that water injection into SFP of Unit 4 began on March 22, it seems that something very bad happend either in the core or equipment pool, or both perhaps just before March 21.
 

 
The plume dispersion speed analysis may provide some insight about extremely high radiation levels inside Unit 4 detected on March 15 that its source was most likely from SFP but neither from the core  nor from equipment pool.   
 

 
The discussion from various angles so far leads to the strong doubt that 234Uranium was released from the Fresh Depleted Uranium made from enrichment of reprocessed uranium in storage in the equipment pool and/or the product in process in the core.    
 
Let's review the thought process whether this strong doubt is the result of cherry picking or not.
 
4) Uncertainty 
 
Start with Hypothesis based on some facts and general knowledge to lead to find out specific questions for further investigation on 1) Uranium enrichment process and 2) Depleted uranium storage.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Spent fuel pool has nothing to do with the U enrichment or depleted uranium storage?
Wait. DP storage may do with Equipment pool.
Nuclear core, IAEA Report says, was empty but there is heat signiture. U enrichment took place there? I don't know.
U234 release seemed four or five days after the massive radiation release from Unit 4 on March 15 which is obvious and true.
And the tail of the third wave is long and radiation level is high.  
 
No one has ever discussed the third wave. 







  
The journey of thought process starting with the hypothesis has taken us to the most likely conclusion as the natural flow of logic.
There is no cherry picking here.
And more importantly,  this logical thinking process provides us very specific questions to ask for the engineers or scientists working on the project to develop MOX fuel in question.
 
Take notice that it is the very engineers only who can answer those questions. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
This is a tentative answer to "The question why so much 239Pu and very unnatural  234U were released from Fukushima DNPP remains but a logical corollary is possible to be discussed some other time soon." stated in Part Ⅰ.
 
There is some other factors to have taken into concideration for this corollary but it is not the issue for the imminent need for the Class Action.


Ready to go

I can't help shivering with the fright that those sailors were exposed to both 239Pu from the second plume wave and 234Uranium from the third plume wave. Both are deadly alpha emitters. 
 

 
I assume that the next question will arise if there was weapon grade plutonium in Unit 4.

The answer is yes but as it may be unnecessary to push back the decision about the venure in San Diego, further discussion on this matter is put hold. 

Rather, it is deemed critical and imminent how to proceed the Class Action from now on after the judge accepted the counterargument.

 
5) Suggestions
 

Let me make sure that two important premises before discussing strategy framing.

 
1) I don't think the "sympathy or empathy" kind of approach will work for this case. That is why the entire discussion made so far is based on scientific papers and general information from open source to make the argument objective as much as possible. 
 
2)  It is an individual victim or sailor that fights against injustice and unfairness. If each one of plaintiff understand and agree with this scientific and comprehensive approach to find the truth of Fukushima DNPP, it would be much easier to frame the strategy because there are many things plaintiff can do for the implementation of the strategy. They are the core to move this difficult challenge forward.  
 
Assuming that these premises were agreed, the next step would be;
     
① Saylors make utmost efforts to disseminate PartⅠand PartⅡ to get public understanding of the reality of alpha emitters, while discussing the trial strategy with lawyers.
 
② If the lawyers agree with the suggested approach, the team of voluntary scientists will have to be formed to support lawyers in the technical perspective. Expertise required ranges from fluid dynamics, particle kinetics, radiation toxicology to respiratory mechanism. This is to counter against possible counterargument at the court. 
 
 
 
Just memo to find out appropreate and voluntary professionals by the area of expertise;
 
 
 
 
Condensation nuclei - Tiny particles invisible to the human eye, such as dust, dirt, and pollutants, that provide surfaces on which water molecules can condense and gather into water droplets.
The paper studied the method of keeping fine particles from aggregating in the air by electrostatic dispersion. The effects of electrode voltage, diameter, humidity and rest time, as well as van der Waals forces, electrostatic forces and liquid bridge forces between particles on electrostatic dispersion of powder were discussed. It was shown that optimal electrostatic dispersion effect of calcium carbonate and talcum particles can be achieved with corona voltage of 29 kV, particle size of 2–25 μm, and proper rest time of 48 h. Criteria for electrostatic dispersion were put forward on the basis of experimental results. Theoretical calculation indicated that the criteria for electrostatic dispersion were in good agreement with experimental results.
ABSTRACT – The ICRP 66 lung model may be used to determine dose estimates for members of the public via the inhalation pathway. A significant source of uncertainty in internal dosimetric modeling is due to particulate deposition in regions of the respiratory tract. Uncertainties in estimates of particulate deposition are present because model input parameters have their own inherent variability. These sources of uncertainty need to be examined in an effort to better understand model processes and to better estimate doses received by individuals exposed through the inhalation pathway. An improved understanding of the uncertainty in particulate deposition will further guide research efforts and improve our ability to quantify internal dose estimates. The ICRP 66 lung deposition model is most sensitive to breathing rate when 1 µm AMAD particles are inhaled by members of the public. Uncertainties in deposition fractions are shown to span an order of magnitude with their distributions varying by gender for a particular lung region. The largest fractional deposition occurs in the deep lung alveolar and extrathoracic regions.
On the basis of environmental radiation monitoring results at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the dry deposition velocities of radionuclides on the ground were estimated. As a result, the estimated dry deposition velocities for Iodine-131, Cesium-134, Cesium-136 and Cesium-137 were in the order of 1 mm/s, and were the same order of those estimated in other studies. The estimated dry deposition velocities varied according to the variations of the ratios of the particulate and gaseous forms of their radionuclides and meteorological conditions such as wind speed.
・ 
The Fukushima nuclear accident released radioactive materials into the environment over the entire Northern Hemisphere in March 2011, and the Japanese government is spending large amounts of money to clean up the contaminated residential areas and agricultural fields. However, we still do not know the exact physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials. This study directly observed spherical Cs-bearing particles emitted during a relatively early stage (March 14–15) of the accident. In contrast to the Cs-bearing radioactive materials that are currently assumed, these particles are larger, contain Fe, Zn, and Cs, and are water insoluble. Our simulation indicates that the spherical Cs-bearing particles mainly fell onto the ground by dry deposition. The finding of the spherical Cs particles will be a key to understand the processes of the accident and to accurately evaluate the health impacts and the residence time in the environment.
169Yb as tracer for plutonium(EPA)
Beagle dogs exposed to 238PuO2 aerosols (136 dogs, 13-22 per group, mean initial lung depositions of 0.0, 0.13, 0.68, 3.1, 13, 52 and 210 kBq) were observed throughout life to determine tissues at risk and dose-effect relationships. The pulmonary retention of 238Pu was represented by the sum of two exponentially decreasing components of the initial lung deposition; about 84% cleared with a 174-day half-time; the half-time of the remainder was 908 days. The average percentages of final body burden found in lung, skeleton, liver and thoracic lymph nodes in the 30 longest-surviving dogs (mean survival 14 years) were 1, 46, 42 and 6%, respectively. Of 116 beagles exposed to plutonium, 34 (29%) developed bone tumors, 31 (27%) developed lung tumors, and 8 (7%) developed liver tumors. Although lungs accumulated a higher average radiation dose than skeleton, more deaths were due to bone tumors than to lung tumors. Deterministic effects included radiation pneumonitis, osteodystrophy, hepatic nodular hyperplasia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis. Hypoadrenocorticism was also observed in a few dogs. Increased serum alanine aminotransferase, indicative of liver damage, was observed in groups with > or =3.1 kBq initial lung deposition. Estimates of cumulative tissue dose in a human exposed to airborne 238PuO2 for 50 years at a rate of one annual limit on intake each year were derived based on a comparison of the data on metabolism for humans and beagles. The 50-year dose estimates for humans are an order of magnitude lower than doses at which increased incidence of neoplasia was observed in these dogs, whereas the projected doses to humans from 50-year exposure at the annual limit of intake are of similar magnitude to those at which deterministic effects were seen in the beagles.
Biological effects of inhaled (PuO2)-Pu-238 in beagles | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13888172_Biological_effects_of_inhaled_PuO2-Pu-238_in_beagles [accessed Feb 12 2018].
Stochastic effect
In a stochastic effect, increasing the dose increases the probability of damage, but the severity of the effect is independent of the dose. Cancer induction and genetic effects are stochastic effects. Stochastic effects are governed by probability. A particular gene in the DNA is or is not damaged. There is no middle ground. The results of a lottery drawing are similar to a stochastic event. Buying more tickets (higher dose) increases the chances of winning but does not increase the prize.

Microscopic analysis of tissue section may be possible?
The black star shows the tracks made over a 48 hour period by alpha rays emitted from a radioactive particle of plutonium lodged in the lung tissue of an ape (the particle itself is invisible). In living lung tissue, if one of the cells adjacent to the particle is damaged in a certain way, it can become a cancer cell later on, spreading rapidly through the lung, causing almost certain death.
Example of prevailing report of Fukushima accident by Kyoto Univ.
(Nothing about Unit 4, which is the reality in Japan.) 


Ready to go!

     

 


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